*Major vascular events defined as myocardial infarction, revascularisation, or ischaemic stroke. †Vertical bars indicate 1 SE. The size of the box is proportional to the number of endpoints in the study. Letters from a to n denote the following trials: a: Gruppo Italiano per
lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico (GISSI Prevenzione); b: Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial–Lipid Lowering
Trial (ALLHAT-LLT); c: Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation (ALERT); d: Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS); e: Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis
Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS); f: Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE); g: Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID); h: Prospective
Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER); i: Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial–Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA); j: West of Scotland Coronary
Prevention Study (WOSCOPS); k: Post–Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (Post CABG); l: Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS); m: Heart Protection Study (HPS);
and n: Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). ‡Independent studies. Data shown are not intended to be a direct comparison. §In the study, 2690 recent MI patients received Repatha®, 2254 of whom achieved LDL-C levels <55 mg/dl. ¶25% RRR reported as the key secondary endpoint: composite of cardiovascular death, MI or stroke. HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.62-0.91; p=0.003. ARR: 3.2%; 95% CI: 1.2-5.2.
4S = Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study; ACS = Acute coronary syndrome; ARR = Absolute risk reduction; CARE = Cholesterol and Recurrent Events trial; CV = Cardiovascular; EAS = European Atherosclerosis Society; ESC = European Society of Cardiology; EVOPACS = EVOlocumab for Early Reduction of LDL-cholesterol Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes; FOURIER = Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk; IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial; LDL-C = Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI = Myocardial infarction; PCSK9 = Protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9; PROVE-IT = Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy; RRR = Relative risk reduction; TNT = Treating to New Targets study.
European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017. Fifth Edition: February 2017. European Heart Network, Brussels.
Cannon CP, et al. New Engl J Med. 2015;372:2387-97.